Other constructs include motivation, depression, anger, and practically any human emotion or trait.
If we have a difficult time defining the construct, we are going to have an even more difficult time measuring it.
Whenever a test or other measuring device is used as part of the data collection process, the validity and reliability of that test is important.
Just as we would not use a math test to assess verbal skills, we would not want to use a measuring device for research that was not truly measuring what we purport it to measure.
For many constructs, or variables that are artificial or difficult to measure, the concept of validity becomes more complex.
Most of us agree that “1 1 = _____” would represent basic addition, but does this question also represent the construct of intelligence?
And the LSAT is used as a means to predict law school performance.
The main concern with these, and many other predictive measures is predictive validity because without it, they would be worthless.
It becomes less valid as a measurement of advanced addition because as it addresses some required knowledge for addition, it does not represent all of knowledge required for an advanced understanding of addition.We can show that students who score high on the SAT tend to receive high grades in college.Reliability is synonymous with the consistency of a test, survey, observation, or other measuring device.It may be included on a scale of intelligence, but does it represent all of intelligence? To develop a valid test of intelligence, not only must there be questions on math, but also questions on verbal reasoning, analytical ability, and every other aspect of the construct we call intelligence.There is no easy way to determine content validity aside from expert opinion. In order for a test to be a valid screening device for some future behavior, it must have predictive validity.