Validating crash locations for quantitative spatial analysis

Abstract: Traffic crashes events are known threats to public safety.Identifying high-crash-risk road segments provides safety specialists with an insight to better understanding of crash patterns and enhancing road safety management.It has also been used to represent the results of statistical studies of accidents but, these statistical studies have not been carried out with GIS.Owing to its integrated statistical-analysis capabilities GIS provides several advantages.

In this paper, several GIS tools used to model accidents have been examined.The idea of the method was theoretical and non easily implemented.We provide a simple technique- based of properties of Gaussian kernels- to compute efficiently weights to correct border bias on frontiers of the region of interest, with an automatic selection of an optimal radius for the method. Road risk accident analysis may concern the study of accidents that had already occurred in an area and the study of risk factors which can be directly related to the occurrence of accidents =-=[11]-=-, [12], [13].The understanding of these tools will help the analyst to make a better decision about which tool could be applied in each particular condition and context.Since traffic accident data has been typically collected by the police who record accident information based on estimation through the engineering methods and statements of accident-involved people and witnesses in the vicinity of an accident, accident data recorded by the police may inevitably include errors.

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