Validating a measure of teacher technology integration

This level resulted in the removal of 28 items in our sample loaded, resulting in a final 102 teacher professional development inventory.The developed inventory measures the extent to which EFL teachers are professionally developed and makes teachers aware of multiple characteristics of professionally developed teachers.Increase of research (Desimone, 2009; O'Hara, Pritchard, Huang, & Pella, 2013) has pointed out the effect of some factors including a content area focus, for hands-on and active learning, relationship with previous professional experiences, collective participation with colleagues, and important contact hours in a continuous meetings, collaboration, and Reflection (Du Four, Du Four, & Eaker, 2008), technology connection (Hughes, Kerr, & Ooms, 2005; Keller, Bonk, & Hew, 2005; Lawless & Pellegrino, 2007; Mouza, 2009; O'Hara, Pritchard, Huang, & Pella, 2013; Walker, Recker, Ye, Robershaw, Sellers, & Leary, 2012).Darling-Hammond and Sykes (1999) mention that personal development is a shared, public process; increases maintained communication; emphasizes real school-related concerns; depends on internal skill; expects teachers to be active participants; emphasizes on the why as well as the how of teaching; brings about a theoretical research base; and expects that alteration will be a slow process in the new pattern.Teacher professional development has called by such names as ‘academic development’, ‘educational development’, ‘faculty development’, and ‘instructional development’. Wei, Darling-Hammond, Andree, Richardson, & Orphanos, 2009; Wenglinsky, 2002; Wilson & Berne, 1999) that teacher professional development is a foundation of educational improvements which explores to enhance student achievement.

Thus, there is a need for a way to measure educators’ attitudes and beliefs toward the potential impact of digital devices on educating the whole student.Improvement and change in teachers’ knowledge and practice are likely to bring about changes in teacher growth, verities in teachers’ instructional techniques and strategies as well as enhancement in student learning.Review of the related literature on teacher professional development programs represents that different inquiry-based models to professional development (e.g., Critical Friends Groups, Bambino, 2002; Peer Coaching, Ackland, 2000; Lesson Study, Takemura & Shimizu, 1993; Cooperative Development, Edge, 1992; and Teacher Study Groups, Burns, 1999; Clair, 1998; Dubetz, 2005) have been designed to make a mediational context for teachers to use in continuous, systematic, and reflective examination of their pedagogical activities and their students' learning (Johnson, 2009).The following sections provide a background to the concept of teacher professional development, reviews the prior related studies, and explains the details of the development and validation of the English language teacher professional development inventory in the current paper.LITERATURE REVIEW Teacher Professional Development According to Stes, Min-Leliveld, Gijbels and Van Petegem (2010), teacher professional development is a term including a lot of teacher education programs, plans or experiences which may adjust from workshops to critical reflection on teachers’ teaching profession either by one teacher or by a team of colleague teachers, to classroom observation of a teacher, to hallway conversations among teachers and teacher directors.

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