Third, some centuries later, Targum Pseudo-Jonathan brought together Onqelos’s translation, the Palestinian Targums’ additions, and an even larger amount of additional material of its own.Targum Jonathan of the Prophets was composed within the same movement that produced Targum Onqelos, being written in the same dialect and a similar style, while most of the Targums to the Writings books were composed later and shared the dialect of Pseudo-Jonathan.The additions provide important insights into ancient Jewish biblical interpretation.Targums exist for all the books of the Hebrew Bible except Daniel and Ezra-Nehemiah, which were partly written in Aramaic.Thus, when the Talmud states that "a person should complete his portions of scripture along with the community, reading the scripture twice and the targum once" (Berakhot 8a-b), the passage may be taken to refer to Targum Jonathan (as well as to Targum Onkelos on the Torah). Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the Brill Online platform automatically have access to the My Book option for the title(s) acquired by the Library.In order to discover fixed points from which to chart the targum's relationship to other rabbinic writings, its peculiar interpretations of a difficult, disputed, and much debated matter like the red heifer (Num. The performance of the red heifer ceremony by priests other than the high priest offers such assurance: the sin of the golden calf is thereby forgiven, the cleansing being carried out by priests other than the high priest on behalf of all Israel and of the high priest himself.This chapter examines the targum's treatment of the red heifer, and attempts to show how PJ's individual understanding of this much debated yet vitally important ritual may yield pointers to the date of that targum's origins.
It reveals lively theological debate and ferment, in which their writers strove to determine how Judaism could continue its vibrancy and relevance despite the loss of its central institution of worship the Temple.
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Most Targums were composed between the 1st and 7th centuries , the Rabbinic period.
Aramaic translations called Targums appear at Qumran, but they lack the typical style of the later Targums. Under the Greek and Roman Empires, most east Mediterranean Jews adopted the Greek language, but Aramaic became the lingua franca of Jews in Palestine and Babylonia.