The phonograph was connected by an intricate arrangement of pulleys to the film projector, allowing—under ideal conditions—for synchronization.
However, conditions were rarely ideal, and the new, improved Kinetophone was retired after little more than a year.
In 1902, Léon Gaumont demonstrated his sound-on-disc Chronophone, involving an electrical connection he had recently patented, to the French Photographic Society. Norton's Cameraphone was the primary competitor to the Gaumont system (sources differ on whether the Cameraphone was disc- or cylinder-based); it ultimately failed for many of the same reasons that held back the Chronophone.
Despite high expectations, Gaumont's sound innovations had only limited commercial success—though improvements, they still did not satisfactorily address the three basic issues with sound film and were expensive as well. In 1913, Edison introduced a new cylinder-based synch-sound apparatus known, just like his 1895 system, as the Kinetophone; instead of films being shown to individual viewers in the Kinetoscope cabinet, they were now projected onto a screen.
The primary steps in the commercialization of sound cinema were taken in the mid- to late 1920s.
At first, the sound films which included synchronized dialogue, known as "talking pictures", or "talkies", were exclusively shorts.
Muybridge later claimed that on this occasion, six years before the first commercial motion picture exhibition, he proposed a scheme for sound cinema that would combine his image-casting zoopraxiscope with Edison's recorded-sound technology.A major hit, it was made with Vitaphone, which was at the time the leading brand of sound-on-disc technology.Sound-on-film, however, would soon become the standard for talking pictures.In India, sound was the transformative element that led to the rapid expansion of the nation's film industry.The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as the concept of cinema itself.