Sixty-one percent of White Americans are more likely to approve of such marriages today, compared to 4% in 1958.8 In addition, according to the U. Census Bureau, one in fifty marriages are interracial which is four times the number compared to 1970.9 Interracial marriages can include the union of Asians, Hispanics, Blacks, Whites, and any other group. The third justification was based on popular belief that children of interracial marriages were mentally and physically inferior to pure White race children.12 These racist beliefs concerning the inferiority of mixed race children were not confined to the uneducated masses.
However, when people talk about race relations, the focus is on Blacks and Whites. The science of Eugenics also supported the belief that children produced from these interracial marriages were inferior.
Children from interracial marriages are no longer denied the same benefits and privileges as the children prior to Loving. Children of Black and White Marriages, Black and White Mixed Marriages (1978). Peter Wallenstein, Race, Marriage, and the Law of Freedom: Alabama and Virginia, 1860's-1960's, 70 Chi.-Kent L. The Alabama Constitution of 1865 directed the legislature to make interracial marriages between White and people of African ancestry "null and void and make the parties to any such marriage subject to criminal prosecutions."14 The legislature established a penalty of 2-7 years imprisonment for both member of any interracial couple. This bibliography will focus on the additional time periods from 1660-1690, and 1690-1770 (the history basically holds true for both Virginia and Alabama).Celebrities like Tiger Woods may have changed society's views on interracial children, but are there more serious effects on these children than what is shown by Tiger Woods? Children of Interracial Marriages, Interracial Marriage: Expectations and Realities (1973). Race, Marriage, and the Law of Freedom: Alabama and Virginia, 1860's-1960's. Penalties were also set up for any probate judge who knowingly issued a marriage license to an interracial couple, and for any justice of the peace or minister of the gospel who performed a marriage ceremony for such a couple.15 This article goes on to show how the courts have adapted new law in both Alabama and Virginia as the political, legal, and constitutional environment determined how laws would be applied to interracial marriage. These time periods are where the history of the children born out of interracial marriages all began.These effects and the history of interracial marriages will be the focus of this annotated bibliography. "Only the Law Would Rule Between Us": Anti-miscegenation, the Moral Economy of Dependency, and the Debate Over Rights After the Civil War, 70 Chi.-Kent L. The time periods which are focused on are as follows: 1868-1877, 1877-1920's, 1920's-1940's, 1950's, and the 1960's with Loving v. In 1662, the question in front of the legislature was whether "children got by any Englishman upon a Negro woman should be free or slave."16 The solution was to look at the mother: if the non-white woman was free, her mixed-race child would be free; but if she was a slave, then any child she had would be a slave.If the person looked White then the burden of proof was on the State to show the person was either Black or of the mixed race. section 107, some material on this website is provided for comment, background information, research and/or educational purposes only, without permission from the copyright owner(s), under the "fair use" provisions of the federal copyright laws.If the person looked Black or mixed, the burden was on the person to prove they were White and entitled to such rights and privileges.22 The author next goes into the concern over the production of mixed race children.