During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, the Aristotelian approach to inquiries on natural phenomenon was used.Some ancient knowledge was lost, or in some cases kept in obscurity, during the fall of the Roman Empire and periodic political struggles.However no consistent conscientious distinction was made between knowledge of such things which are true in every community and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems.Before the invention or discovery of the concept of “nature” (Ancient Greek phusis), by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural “way” in which a plant grows, and the “way” in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.For this reason it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the first people to clearly distinguish “nature” and “convention”.Science was therefore distinguished as the knowledge of nature, and the things which are true for every community, and the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy — the realm of the first philosopher-physicists.
During the Islamic Golden Age, the foundation for the scientific method was laid, which emphasized experimental data and reproducibility of its results.
For example in his physics the sun goes around the earth, and many things have it as part of their nature that they are for humans.
Each thing has a formal causeand final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order.
A major turning point in the history of early philosophical science was the controversial but successful attempt by Socrates to apply philosophy to the study of human things, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and human knowledge itself.
He criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative, and lacking in self-criticism.