Dating a newly recovered alcoholic

The process is named after the French chemist Louis Pasteur, who devised it in 1865 to inhibit fermentation of wine and milk.Milk is pasteurized by heating at a temperature of 63 C (145 F) for 30 minutes, rapidly cooling it, and then storing it at a temperature below 10 C (50 F).After spending several years of research and teaching at Dijon and Strasbourg, Pasteur moved in 1854 to the University of Lille, where he was named professor of chemistry and dean of the faculty of sciences.Although his belief that yeast plays some kind of role in this process was not original, he was able to demonstrate, from his earlier work on chemical specificity, that the desired production of alcohol in fermentation is indeed due to yeast and that the undesired production of substances (such as lactic acid or acetic acid) that make wine sour is due to the presence of additional organisms such as bacteria.Beer and wine are pasteurized by being heated at about 60 C (140 F) for about 20 minutes; a newer method involves heating at 70 C (158 F) for about 30 seconds and filling the container under sterile conditions.Yeasts have been used since prehistoric times in the making of breads and wines, but their cultivation and use in large quantities was put on a scientific basis by the work of the French microbiologist Louis Today they are used industrially in a wide range of fermentation processes; medicinally, as a source of B-complex vitamins and thiamine (see Vitamin) and as a stage in the production of various antibiotics and steroid hormones; and as feed and foodstuffs.This left the moulds without an explanation, so he started a second series of observations on June 25, 1856 (at Strasbourg) in order to determine if possible, their origin, and on March 27, 1857, he started a third series of flasks to study the effects of creosote on the changes.

In the 19th century, Louis Pasteur showed that under the conditions he studied, life could not originate naturally from nonliving matter, results interpreted broadly to mean that all life comes from living matter.He found that a beam of polarized light (see Optics) was rotated to either the right or the left as it passed through a pure solution of naturally produced organic nutrients, whereas when polarized light was passed through a solution of artificially synthesized organic nutrients, no rotation took place.Pasteur concluded that organic molecules could exist in one of two forms, called isomers (that is, having the same structure and differing only in mirror images of each other), which he referred to as left-handed and right-handed forms.Soft ice cream, made of the same ingredients as ordinary ice cream, is sold as it comes from the freezer before hardening.Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera.

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