The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century.
Another contribution was the development of fritware, originating from 9th century Iraq.
The nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends.
Muslim history involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution.
Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis were pioneers of the philosophical novel.During this period, the Muslim world was a collection of cultures; they drew together and advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Greek, Roman, Persian, Chinese, Indian, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations.Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters.The succeeding Umayyad Caliphate attempted two failed sieges of Constantinople in 674–678 and 717–718.Meanwhile, the Muslim community tore itself apart into the rivalling Sunni and Shia sects since the killing of caliph Uthman in 656, resulting in a succession crisis that has never been resolved.