Upon his return, there began the "Musket Wars" on South Island.
Preschool Maori children attend Kohanga-reo (language nests) to learn Maori. The national airline has a stylized Koru (fern leaf), all the national sports teams have a fern leaf, the feathered cloak of a Maori chief is used on ceremonial occasions, and haka is performed before international rugby matches.
The climate varies from subtropical in Northland to continental in Central Otago.
The country was two-thirds deforested by the time of the European settlement, and so the high country is largely tussock (South Island) and secondary bush (North Island) with extensive pine plantations. In 1996, the population was 3,681,546, including 2,749,980 on the North Island and 931,566 on South Island.
Business and banking were supported by a Jewish population.
Other minorities who have retained much of their culture are Polish, Lebanese, Yugoslav, and Dutch.